Amoxicillin Chewable

Name: Amoxicillin Chewable

AMOXICILLIN CAPSULES USP, 250 mg and 500 mg/ AMOXICILLIN FOR ORAL SUSPENSION USP, 125 mg per 5 mL and 250 mg per 5 mL/AMOXICILLIN TABLETS USP (CHEWABLE), 125 mg and 250 mg 3107 3109 2267 2268 4150 4155 Rx only

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of amoxicillin capsules, amoxicillin for oral suspension, amoxicillin tablets (chewable) and other antibacterial drugs, amoxicillin capsules, amoxicillin for oral suspension, and amoxicillin tablets (chewable) should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

Amoxicillin Chewable Description

Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic, an analog of ampicillin, with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Chemically, it is (2S,5R,6R)-6-[(R)-(-)-2-amino-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid trihydrate. The structural formula is:

C16H19N3O5S•3H2O M.W. 419.45

Each capsule, for oral administration, contains 250 mg or 500 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate.

Inactive Ingredients: CAPSULES-DRUG PRODUCT: magnesium stearate.

CAPSULE SHELL AND PRINT CONSTITUENTS: black iron oxide, D&C Yellow #10, FD&C Red #40, gelatin, propylene glycol, shellac, sodium lauryl sulfate, titanium dioxide, and may also contain D&C Yellow #10 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue #1 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue #2, FD&C Blue #2 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Red #40 Aluminum Lake, methylparaben, propylparaben, and silicon dioxide. In addition, the 250 mg capsule shell contains D&C Red #28 and FD&C Blue #1 and the 500 mg capsule shell may also contain FD&C Blue #1.

After mixing, each 5 mL of amoxicillin suspension, for oral administration, will contain 125 mg or 250 mg of amoxicillin as the trihydrate.

Inactive Ingredients: SUSPENSION: FD&C Red #40, mixed berry flavoring, silicon dioxide, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, sucrose, and xanthan gum.

Each chewable tablet, for oral administration, contains 125 mg or 250 mg of amoxicillin as the trihydrate.

Inactive Ingredients: CHEWABLE TABLETS: cherry flavor, lactose, magnesium stearate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium citrate, and sucrose.

Amoxicillin Chewable - Clinical Pharmacology

Amoxicillin is stable in the presence of gastric acid and is rapidly absorbed after oral administration. The effect of food on the absorption of amoxicillin from amoxicillin tablets and amoxicillin suspension has been partially investigated. The 400 mg and 875 mg formulations have been studied only when administered at the start of a light meal. However, food effect studies have not been performed with the 200 mg and 500 mg formulations. Amoxicillin diffuses readily into most body tissues and fluids, with the exception of brain and spinal fluid, except when meninges are inflamed. The half-life of amoxicillin is 61.3 minutes. Most of the amoxicillin is excreted unchanged in the urine; its excretion can be delayed by concurrent administration of probenecid. In blood serum, amoxicillin is approximately 20% protein-bound.

Orally administered doses of 250 mg and 500 mg amoxicillin capsules result in average peak blood levels 1 to 2 hours after administration in the range of 3.5 mcg/mL to 5.0 mcg/mL and 5.5 mcg/mL to 7.5 mcg/mL, respectively.

Mean amoxicillin pharmacokinetic parameters from an open, two-part, single-dose crossover bioequivalence study in 27 adults comparing 875 mg of amoxicillin with 875 mg of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium showed that the 875 mg tablet of amoxicillin produces an AUC0-∞ of 35.4 ± 8.1 mcg•hr/mL and a Cmax of 13.8 ± 4.1 mcg/mL. Dosing was at the start of a light meal following an overnight fast.

Orally administered doses of amoxicillin suspension, 125 mg/5 mL and 250 mg/5 mL, result in average peak blood levels 1 to 2 hours after administration in the range of 1.5 mcg/mL to 3.0 mcg/mL and 3.5 mcg/mL to 5.0 mcg/mL, respectively.

Oral administration of single doses of 400 mg chewable tablets and 400 mg/5 mL suspension of amoxicillin to 24 adult volunteers yielded comparable pharmacokinetic data:

Dose AUC0-∞ (mcg•hr/mL) Cmax (mcg/mL)
Amoxicillin amoxicillin (± S.D.) amoxicillin (± S.D.)
400 mg (5 mL of suspension) 17.1 (3.1) 5.92 (1.62)
400 mg (1 chewable tablet) 17.9 (2.4) 5.18 (1.64)

Detectable serum levels are observed up to 8 hours after an orally administered dose of amoxicillin. Following a 1 gram dose and utilizing a special skin window technique to determine levels of the antibiotic, it was noted that therapeutic levels were found in the interstitial fluid. Approximately 60% of an orally administered dose of amoxicillin is excreted in the urine within 6 to 8 hours.

Microbiology

Amoxicillin is similar to ampicillin in its bactericidal action against susceptible organisms during the stage of active multiplication. It acts through the inhibition of biosynthesis of cell wall mucopeptide. Amoxicillin has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the

Overdosage

).

Hemic and Lymphatic Systems: Anemia, including hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia, leukopenia, and agranulocytosis have been reported during therapy with penicillins. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena.

Central Nervous System: Reversible hyperactivity, agitation, anxiety, insomnia, confusion, convulsions, behavioral changes, and/or dizziness have been reported rarely.

Miscellaneous: Tooth discoloration (brown, yellow, or gray staining) has been rarely reported. Most reports occurred in pediatric patients. Discoloration was reduced or eliminated with brushing or dental cleaning in most cases.

Combination Therapy With Clarithromycin and Lansoprazole

In clinical trials using combination therapy with amoxicillin plus clarithromycin and lansoprazole, and amoxicillin plus lansoprazole, no adverse reactions peculiar to these drug combinations were observed. Adverse reactions that have occurred have been limited to those that had been previously reported with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, or lansoprazole.

Triple Therapy

Amoxicillin/clarithromycin/lansoprazole

The most frequently reported adverse events for patients who received triple therapy were diarrhea (7%), headache (6%), and taste perversion (5%). No treatment-emergent adverse events were observed at significantly higher rates with triple therapy than with any dual therapy regimen.

Dual Therapy

Amoxicillin/lansoprazole

The most frequently reported adverse events for patients who received amoxicillin three times daily plus lansoprazole three times daily dual therapy were diarrhea (8%) and headache (7%). No treatment-emergent adverse events were observed at significantly higher rates with amoxicillin three times daily plus lansoprazole three times daily dual therapy than with lansoprazole alone.

For more information on adverse reactions with clarithromycin or lansoprazole, refer to their package inserts,

Amoxicillin Chewable Dosage and Administration

Amoxicillin capsules, chewable tablets, and oral suspensions may be given without regard to meals.

Neonates and Infants Aged ≤ 12 Weeks (≤ 3 Months)

Due to incompletely developed renal function affecting elimination of amoxicillin in this age group, the recommended upper dose of amoxicillin is 30 mg/kg/day divided q12h.

Adults and Pediatric Patients > 3 Months

Infection Severity Usual Adult Dose Usual Dose for Children > 3 Months
Ear/Nose/Throat Mild/Moderate 500 mg every 12 hours or 250 mg every 8 hours 25 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours or 20 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours
Severe 875 mg every 12 hours or 500 mg every 8 hours 45 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours or 40 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours
Lower Respiratory Tract Mild/Moderate or Severe 875 mg every 12 hours or 500 mg every 8 hours 45 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours or 40 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours
Skin/Skin Structure Mild/Moderate 500 mg every 12 hours or 250 mg every 8 hours 25 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours or 20 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours
Severe 875 mg every 12 hours or 500 mg every 8 hours 45 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours or 40 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours
Genitourinary Tract Mild/Moderate 500 mg every 12 hours or 250 mg every 8 hours 25 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours or 20 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours
Severe 875 mg every 12 hours or 500 mg every 8 hours 45 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours or 40 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours
Gonorrhea Acute, uncomplicated ano-genital and urethral infections in males and females 3 grams as single oral dose Prepubertal children: 50 mg/kg amoxicillin, combined with 25 mg/kg probenecid as a single dose. NOTE:SINCE PROBENECID IS CONTRAINDICATED IN CHILDREN UNDER 2 YEARS, DO NOT USE THIS REGIMEN IN THESE CASES.

After reconstitution, the required amount of suspension should be placed directly on the child’s tongue for swallowing. Alternate means of administration are to add the required amount of suspension to formula, milk, fruit juice, water, ginger ale, or cold drinks. These preparations should then be taken immediately. To be certain the child is receiving full dosage, such preparations should be consumed in entirety.

All patients with gonorrhea should be evaluated for syphilis (see

Precautions

, Laboratory Tests).

Larger doses may be required for stubborn or severe infections.

General

It should be recognized that in the treatment of chronic urinary tract infections, frequent bacteriological and clinical appraisals are necessary. Smaller doses than those recommended above should not be used. Even higher doses may be needed at times. In stubborn infections, therapy may be required for several weeks. It may be necessary to continue clinical and/or bacteriological follow-up for several months after cessation of therapy. Except for gonorrhea, treatment should be continued for a minimum of 48 to 72 hours beyond the time that the patient becomes asymptomatic or evidence of bacterial eradication has been obtained. It is recommended that there be at least 10 days’ treatment for any infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes to prevent the occurrence of acute rheumatic fever.

H. pylori Eradication to Reduce the Risk of Duodenal Ulcer Recurrence

Triple Therapy

Amoxicillin/clarithromycin/lansoprazole

The recommended adult oral dose is 1 gram amoxicillin, 500 mg clarithromycin, and 30 mg lansoprazole, all given twice daily (q12h) for 14 days (see

References

  1. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically - Fourth Edition; Approved Standard NCCLS Document M7-A4, Vol. 17, No. 2. NCCLS, Wayne, PA, January 1997.
  2. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests - Sixth Edition; Approved Standard NCCLS Document M2-A6, Vol. 17, No. 1. NCCLS, Wayne, PA, January 1997.
  3. Swanson-Biearman B, Dean BS, Lopez G, Krenzelok EP. The effects of penicillin and cephalosporin ingestions in children less than six years of age. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1988;30: 66-67.

CLINITEST® is a registered trademark of Miles, Inc.

CLINISTIX® is a registered trademark of Bayer Corporation.

CLOtest® is a registered trademark of Kimberly-Clark Corporation.

Manufactured In Canada By:

NOVOPHARM LIMITED

Toronto, Canada M1B 2K9

Manufactured For:

TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA

Sellersville, PA 18960

Rev. O 6/2008

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