Dihydroergotamine Mesylate Spray

Name: Dihydroergotamine Mesylate Spray

Warnings

Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray should only be used where a clear diagnosis of migraine headache has been established.

CYP 3A4 Inhibitors (e.g. Macrolide Antibiotics and Protease Inhibitors)

There have been rare reports of serious adverse events in connection with the coadministration of dihydroergotamine and potent CYP 3A4 inhibitors, such as protease inhibitors and macrolide antibiotics, resulting in vasospasm that led to cerebral ischemia and/or and ischemia of the extremities. The use of potent CYP 3A4 inhibitors with dihydroergotamine should therefore be avoided (See CONTRAINDICATIONS). Examples of some of the more potent CYP 3A4 inhibitors include: antifungals ketoconazole and itraconazole, the protease inhibitors ritonavir, nelfinavir, and indinavir, and macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin, and troleandomycin. Other less potent CYP 3A4 inhibitors should be administered with caution. Less potent inhibitors include saquinavir, nefazodone, fluconazole, grapefruit juice, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, zileuton, and clotrimazole. These lists are not exhaustive, and the prescriber should consider the effects on CYP3A4 of other agents being considered for concomitant use with dihydroergotamine.

Fibrotic Complications

There have been reports of pleural and retroperitoneal fibrosis in patients following prolonged daily use of injectable dihydroergotamine mesylate. Rarely, prolonged daily use of other ergot alkaloid drugs has been associated with cardiac valvular fibrosis. Rare cases have also been reported in association with the use of injectable dihydroergotamine mesylate; however, in those cases, patients also received drugs known to be associated with cardiac valvular fibrosis.

Administration of Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray, should not exceed the dosing guidelines and should not be used for chronic daily administration (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Risk of Myocardial Ischemia and/or Infarction and Other Adverse Cardiac Events

Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray should not be used by patients with documented ischemic or vasospastic coronary artery disease. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS) It is strongly recommended that Migranal® dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray not be given to patients in whom unrecognized coronary artery disease (CAD) is predicted by the presence of risk factors (e.g., hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoker, obesity, diabetes, strong family history of CAD, females who are surgically or physiologically postmenopausal, or males who are over 40 years of age) unless a cardiovascular evaluation provides satisfactory clinical evidence that the patient is reasonably free of coronary artery and ischemic myocardial disease or other significant underlying cardiovascular disease. The sensitivity of cardiac diagnostic procedures to detect cardiovascular disease or predisposition to coronary artery vasospasm is modest, at best. If, during the cardiovascular evaluation, the patient's medical history or electrocardiographic investigations reveal findings indicative of or consistent with coronary artery vasospasm or myocardial ischemia, Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray should not be administered. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS)

For patients with risk factors predictive of CAD who are determined to have a satisfactory cardiovascular evaluation, it is strongly recommended that administration of the first dose of Migranal (dihydroergotamine mesylate spray) ® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray take place in the setting of a physician's office or similar medically staffed and equipped facility unless the patient has previously received dihydroergotamine mesylate. Because cardiac ischemia can occur in the absence of clinical symptoms, consideration should be given to obtaining on the first occasion of use an electrocardiogram (ECG) during the interval immediately following Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray, in these patients with risk factors.

It is recommended that patients who are intermittent long-term users of Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray and who have or acquire risk factors predictive of CAD, as described above, undergo periodic interval cardiovascular evaluation as they continue to use Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray.

The systematic approach described above is currently recommended as a method to identify patients in whom Migranal (dihydroergotamine mesylate spray) ® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray may be used to treat migraine headaches with an acceptable margin of cardiovascular safety.

Cardiac Events and Fatalities

No deaths have been reported in patients using Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray. However, the potential for adverse cardiac events exists. Serious adverse cardiac events, including acute myocardial infarction, life-threatening disturbances of cardiac rhythm, and death have been reported to have occurred following the administration of dihydroergotamine mesylate injection (e.g., D.H.E. 45® Injection). Considering the extent of use of dihydroergotamine mesylate in patients with migraine, the incidence of these events is extremely low.

Drug-Associated Cerebrovascular Events and Fatalities

Cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, and other cerebrovascular events have been reported in patients treated with D.H.E. 45® Injection; and some have resulted in fatalities. In a number of cases, it appears possible that the cerebrovascular events were primary, the D.H.E. 45® Injection having been administered in the incorrect belief that the symptoms experienced were a consequence of migraine, when they were not. It should be noted that patients with migraine may be at increased risk of certain cerebrovascular events (e.g., stroke, hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack).

Other Vasospasm Related Events

Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray, like other ergot alkaloids, may cause vasospastic reactions other than coronary artery vasospasm. Myocardial and peripheral vascular ischemia have been reported with Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray.

Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray associated vasospastic phenomena may also cause muscle pains, numbness, coldness, pallor, and cyanosis of the digits. In patients with compromised circulation, persistent vasospasm may result in gangrene or death, Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray should be discontinued immediately if signs or symptoms of vasoconstriction develop.

Increase in Blood Pressure

Significant elevation in blood pressure has been reported on rare occasions in patients with and without a history of hypertension treated with Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray and dihydroergotamine mesylate injection.

Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray is contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS)

An 18% increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure was seen following dosing with another 5HT1 agonist in a study evaluating subjects undergoing cardiac catheterization.

Local Irritation

Approximately 30% of patients using Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray (compared to 9% of placebo patients) have reported irritation in the nose, throat, and/or disturbances in taste. Irritative symptoms include congestion, burning sensation, dryness, paraesthesia, discharge, epistaxis, pain, or soreness. The symptoms were predominantly mild to moderate in severity and transient. In approximately 70% of the above mentioned cases, the symptoms resolved within four hours after dosing with Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray. Examinations of the nose and throat in a small subset (N = 66) of study participants treated for up to 36 months (range 1-36 months) did not reveal any clinically noticeable injury. Other than this limited number of patients, the consequences of extended and repeated use of Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray on the nasal and/or respiratory mucosa have not been systematically evaluated in patients.

Nasal tissue in animals treated with dihydroergotamine mesylate daily at nasal cavity surface area exposures (in mg/mm²) that were equal to or less than those achieved in humans receiving the maximum recommended daily dose of 0.08 mg/kg/day showed mild mucosal irritation characterized by mucous cell and transitional cell hyperplasia and squamous cell metaplasia. Changes in rat nasal mucosa at 64 weeks were less severe than at 13 weeks. Local effects on respiratory tissue after chronic intranasal dosing in animals have not been evaluated.

Clinical pharmacology

Mechanism of Action

Dihydroergotamine binds with high affinity to 5-HT1Dα and 5-HT1Dβ receptors. It also binds with high affinity to serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C receptors, noradrenaline α2A, α2B and α1 receptors, and dopamine D2L and D3 receptors. The therapeutic activity of dihydroergotamine in migraine is generally attributed to the agonist effect at 5-HT1D receptors. Two current theories have been proposed to explain the efficacy of 5-HT1D receptor agonists in migraine. One theory suggests that activation of 5-HT1D receptors located on intracranial blood vessels, including those on arterio-venous anastomoses, leads to vasoconstriction, which correlates with the relief of migraine headache. The alternative hypothesis suggests that activation of 5-HT1D receptors on sensory nerve endings of the trigeminal system results in the inhibition of pro-inflammatory neuropeptide release. In addition, dihydroergotamine possesses oxytocic properties. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS)

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Dihydroergotamine mesylate is poorly bioavailable following oral administration. Following intranasal administration, however, the mean bioavailability of dihydroergotamine mesylate is 32% relative to the injectable administration. Absorption is variable, probably reflecting both intersubject differences of absorption and the technique used for self-administration.

Distribution

Dihydroergotamine mesylate is 93% plasma protein bound. The apparent steady-state volume of distribution is approximately 800 liters.

Metabolism

Four dihydroergotamine mesylate metabolites have been identified in human plasma following oral administration. The major metabolite, 8'-β-hydroxydihydroergotamine, exhibits affinity equivalent to its parent for adrenergic and 5-HT receptors and demonstrates equivalent potency in several venoconstrictor activity models, in vivo and in vitro. The other metabolites, i.e., dihydrolysergic acid, dihydrolysergic amide and a metabolite formed by oxidative opening of the proline ring are of minor importance. Following nasal administration, total metabolites represent only 20%-30% of plasma AUC. The systemic clearance of dihydroergotamine mesylate following I.V. and I.M. administration is 1.5 L/min. Quantitative pharmacokinetic characterization of the four metabolites has not been performed.

Excretion

The major excretory route of dihydroergotamine is via the bile in the feces. After intranasal administration the urinary recovery of parent drug amounts to about 2% of the administered dose compared to 6% after I.M. administration. The total body clearance is 1.5 L/min which reflects mainly hepatic clearance. The renal clearance (0.1 L/min) is unaffected by the route of dihydroergotamine administration. The decline of plasma dihydroergotamine is biphasic with a terminal half-life of about 10 hours.

Subpopulations

No studies have been conducted on the effect of renal or hepatic impairment, gender, race, or ethnicity on dihydroergotamine pharmacokinetics. Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray is contraindicated in patients with severely impaired hepatic or renal function. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS)

Interactions

The pharmacokinetics of dihydroergotamine did not appear to be significantly affected by the concomitant use of a local vasoconstrictor (e.g., fenoxazoline).

Multiple oral doses of the b-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, used for migraine prophylaxis, had no significant influence on the Cmax, Tmax or AUC of dihydroergotamine doses up to 4 mg.

Pharmacokinetic interactions have been reported in patients treated orally with other ergot alkaloids (e.g., increased levels of ergotamine) and macrolide antibiotics, principally troleandomycin, presumably due to inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A metabolism of the alkaloids by troleandomycin. Dihydroergotamine has also been shown to be an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A catalyzed reactions and rare reports of ergotism have been obtained from patients treated with dihydroergotamine and macrolide antibiotics (e.g., troleandomycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin), and in patients treated with dihydroergotamine and protease inhibitors (e.g. ritonavir), presumably due to inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A metabolism of ergotamine (See CONTRAINDICATIONS). No pharmacokinetic interactions involving other cytochrome P450 isoenzymes are known.

Clinical Trials

The efficacy of Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray for the acute treatment of migraine headaches was evaluated in four randomized, double blind, placebo controlled studies in the U.S. The patient population for the trials was predominantly female (87%) and Caucasian (95%) with a mean age of 39 years (range 18 to 65 years). Patients treated a single moderate to severe migraine headache with a single dose of study medication and assessed pain severity over the 24 hours following treatment. Headache response was determined 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours after dosing and was defined as a reduction in headache severity to mild or no pain. In studies 1 and 2, a four-point pain intensity scale was utilized; in studies 3 and 4, a five-point scale was used that included both pain response and restoration of function for “severe” or “incapacitating” pain, a less clear endpoint. Although rescue medication was allowed in all four studies, patients were instructed not to use them during the four hour observation period. In studies 3 and 4, a total dose of 2 mg was compared to placebo. In studies 1 and 2, doses of 2 and 3 mg were evaluated, and showed no advantage of the higher dose for a single treatment. In all studies, patients received a regimen consisting of 0.5 mg in each nostril, repeated in 15 minutes (and again in another 15 minutes for the 3 mg dose in studies 1 and 2).

The percentage of patients achieving headache response 4 hours after treatment was significantly greater in patients receiving 2 mg doses of Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray compared to those receiving placebo in 3 of the 4 studies (see Tables 1 & 2 and Figures 1 & 2).

Table 1: Studies 1 and 2: Percentage of patients with headache responsea 2 and 4 hours following a single treatment of study medication [Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray or Placebo]

    N 2 hours 4 hours
Study 1 Migranal® 105 61% ** 70% **
Placebo 98 23% 28%
Study 2 Migranal® 103 47% 56% *
Placebo 102 33% 35%
aHeadache response was defined as a reduction in headache severity to mild or no pain. Headache response was based on pain intensity as interpreted by the patient using a four-point pain intensity scale.
*p value < 0.01
**p value < 0.01

Table 2: Studies 3 and 4: Percentage of patients with headache responsea 2 and 4 hours following a single treatment of study medication [Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray or Placebo]

    N 2 hours 4 hours
Study 3 Migranal® 50 32% 48% *
Placebo 50 20% 22%
Study 4 Migranal® 47 30% 47%
Placebo 50 20% 30%
a Headache response was defined as a reduction in headache severity to mild or no pain. Headache response was evaluated on a fivepoint scale that included both pain response and restoration of function for “severe” or “incapacitating” pain.
*p value < 0.01

Comparisons of drug performance based upon results obtained in different clinical trials are never reliable. Because studies are conducted at different times, with different samples of patients, by different investigators, employing different criteria and/or different interpretations of the same criteria, under different conditions (dose, dosing regimen, etc.), quantitative estimates of treatment response and the timing of response may be expected to vary considerably from study to study.

The Kaplan-Meier plots below (Figures 1 & 2) provides an estimate of the probability that a patient will have responded to a single 2 mg dose of Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray as a function of the time elapsed since initiation of treatment.

Figure 1 - Estimated Probability of a Patient Responding During the Four Hours Following a Single 2 mg Dose of Migranal (dihydroergotamine mesylate spray) ® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray as a function of the time elapsed since initiation of treatment*

*The figure shows the probability over time of obtaining a response following treatment with Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray. Headache response was based on pain intensity as interpreted by the patient using a four-point pain intensity scale. Patients not achieving response within 4 hours were censored to 4 hours.

Figure 2 - Estimated Probability of a Patient Responding to Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray During the Four Hours Following Dosing*

 *The figure shows the probability over time of obtaining a response following treatment with Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray. Headache response was evaluated on a five-point scale that confounded pain response and restoration of function for “severe” or “incapacitating” pain. Patients not achieving response within 4 hours were censored to 4 hours.

For patients with migraine-associated nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia at baseline, there was a lower incidence of these symptoms at 2 and 4 hours following administration of Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray compared to placebo.

Patients were not allowed to use additional treatments for eight hours prior to study medication dosing and during the four hour observation period following study treatment. Following the 4 hour observation period, patients were allowed to use additional treatments. For all studies, the estimated probability of patients using additional treatments for their migraines over the 24 hours following the single 2 mg dose of study treatment is summarized in Figure 3 below.

Figure 3 - Estimated Probability of a Patient Using Additional Treatments for Migraine Over the 24 Hours Following Either Migranal (dihydroergotamine mesylate spray) ® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray 2mg (or placebo)*

*Kaplan-Meier plot based on data obtained from all studies with patients not using additional treatments censored to 24 hours. All patients received a single treatment of study medication for their migraine attack. The plot also includes patients who had no response to the initial dose.

Neither age nor sex appear to effect the patient's response to Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray. While patients with menstrual migraine, migraine with aura, and migraine without aura by medical history were included in the clinical evaluation of Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray, patients were not required to report the specific type of migraine treated with study medication. Thus, neither the effect of menses on migraine nor the presence or the absence of aura were assessed. The racial distribution of patients was insufficient to determine the effect of race on the efficacy of Migranal (dihydroergotamine mesylate spray) ® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray.

What is dihydroergotamine nasal (migranal)?

Dihydroergotamine is in a group of drugs called ergot alkaloids (ER-got AL-ka-loids). It works by narrowing the blood vessels around the brain.

Dihydroergotamine nasal is used to a treat migraine headache attack.

This medication will only treat a migraine headache that has already begun. It will not prevent headaches or reduce the number of attacks.

Dihydroergotamine nasal should not be used to treat common tension headaches or any headache that seems to be different from your usual migraine headaches.

Dihydroergotamine nasal may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What should i avoid while using dihydroergotamine nasal (migranal)?

Do not use dihydroergotamine nasal within 24 hours before or after using another migraine headache medicine, including:

  • another ergot medicine such as ergotamine (Ergomar, Ergostat, Cafergot, Ercaf, Wigraine), ergonovine (Ergotrate), methylergonovine (Methergine), or methysergide (Sansert); or
  • almotriptan (Axert), eletriptan (Relpax), frovatriptan (Frova), naratriptan (Amerge), sumatriptan (Imitrex), rizatriptan (Maxalt, Maxalt-MLT), or zolmitriptan (Zomig).

Grapefruit and grapefruit juice may interact with dihydroergotamine nasal and lead to potentially dangerous effects. Discuss the use of grapefruit products with your doctor. Do not increase or decrease the amount of grapefruit products in your diet without first talking to your doctor.

Side effects

During clinical studies and the foreign postmarketing experience with Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray there have been no fatalities due to cardiac events.

Serious cardiac events, including some that have been fatal, have occurred following use of the parenteral form of dihydroergotamine mesylate (D.H.E. 45® Injection), but are extremely rare. Events reported have included coronary artery vasospasm, transient myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS).

Fibrotic complications have been reported in association with long term use of injectable dihydroergotamine mesylate (see WARNINGS: Fibrotic Complications).

Incidence in Controlled Clinical Trials

Of the 1,796 patients and subjects treated with Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray doses 2 mg or less in U.S. and foreign clinical studies, 26 (1.4%) discontinued because of adverse events. The adverse events associated with discontinuation were, in decreasing order of frequency: rhinitis 13, dizziness 2, facial edema 2, and one each due to cold sweats, accidental trauma, depression, elective surgery, somnolence, allergy, vomiting, hypotension, and paraesthesia.

The most commonly reported adverse events associated with the use of Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray during placebo-controlled, double-blind studies for the treatment of migraine headache and not reported at an equal incidence by placebo-treated patients were rhinitis, altered sense of taste, application site reactions, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. The events cited reflect experience gained under closely monitored conditions of clinical trials in a highly selected patient population. In actual clinical practice or in other clinical trials, these frequency estimates may not apply, as the conditions of use, reporting behavior, and the kinds of patients treated may differ.

Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray was generally well tolerated. In most instances these events were transient and self-limited and did not result in patient discontinuation from a study. The following table summarizes the incidence rates of adverse events reported by at least 1% of patients who received Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray for the treatment of migraine headaches during placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical studies and were more frequent than in those patients receiving placebo.

Table 3: Adverse events reported by at least 1% of the Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray treated patients and occurred more frequently than in the placebo-group in the migraine placebo-controlled trials

    Migranal®
N=597
Placebo
N=631
Respiratory System
  Rhinitis 26% 7%
  Pharyngitis 3% 1%
  Sinusitis 1% 1%
Gastrointestinal System
  Nausea 10% 4%
  Vomiting 4% 1%
  Diarrhea 2% < 1%
Special Senses, Other
  Altered Sense of Taste 8% 1%
Application Site
  Application Site Reaction 6% 2%
Central and Peripheral Nervous System
  Dizziness 4% 2%
  Somnolence 3% 2%
  Paraesthesia 2% 2%
Body as a Whole, General
  Hot Flashes 1% < 1%
  Fatigue 1% 1%
  Asthenia 1% 0%
Autonomic Nervous System
  Mouth Dry 1% 1%
Musculoskeletal System
  Stiffness 1% < 1%

Other Adverse Events During Clinical Trials

In the paragraphs that follow, the frequencies of less commonly reported adverse clinical events are presented. Because the reports include events observed in open and uncontrolled studies, the role of Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray in their causation cannot be reliably determined. Furthermore, variability associated with adverse event reporting, the terminology used to describe adverse events, etc., limit the value of the quantitative frequency estimates provided. Event frequencies are calculated as the number of patients who used Migranal (dihydroergotamine mesylate spray) ® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray in placebo-controlled trials and reported an event divided by the total number of patients (n=1796) exposed to Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray. All reported events are included except those already listed in the previous table, those too general to be informative, and those not reasonably associated with the use of the drug. Events are further classified within body system categories and enumerated in order of decreasing frequency using the following definitions: frequent adverse events are defined as those occurring in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse events are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1,000 patients; and rare adverse events are those occurring in fewer than 1/1,000 patients.

Skin and Appendages: Infrequent: petechia, pruritus, rash, cold clammy skin; Rare: papular rash, urticaria, herpes simplex.

Musculoskeletal: Infrequent: cramps, myalgia, muscular weakness, dystonia; Rare: arthralgia, involuntary muscle contractions, rigidity.

Central and Peripheral Nervous System: Infrequent: confusion, tremor, hypoesthesia, vertigo; Rare: speech disorder, hyperkinesia, stupor, abnormal gait, aggravated migraine.

Autonomic Nervous System: Infrequent: increased sweating.

Special Senses: Infrequent: sense of smell altered, photophobia, conjunctivitis, abnormal lacrimation, abnormal vision, tinnitus, earache; Rare: eye pain.

Psychiatric: Infrequent: nervousness, euphoria, insomnia, concentration impaired; Rare: anxiety, anorexia, depression.

Gastrointestinal: Infrequent: abdominal pain, dyspepsia, dysphagia, hiccup; Rare: increased salivation, esophagospasm.

Cardiovascular: Infrequent: edema, palpitation, tachycardia; Rare: hypotension, peripheral ischemia, angina.

Respiratory System: Infrequent: dyspnea, upper respiratory tract infections; Rare: bronchospasm, bronchitis, pleural pain, epistaxis.

Urinary System: Infrequent: increased frequency of micturition, cystitis.

Reproductive, Female: Rare: pelvic inflammation, vaginitis.

Body as a Whole - General: Infrequent: feeling cold, malaise, rigors, fever, periorbital edema; Rare: flu-like symptoms, shock, loss of voice, yawning.

Application Site: Infrequent: local anesthesia.

Post-introduction Reports

Voluntary reports of adverse events temporally associated with dihydroergotamine products used in the management of migraine that have been received since the introduction of the injectable formulation are included in this section save for those already listed above. Because of their source (open and uncontrolled clinical use), whether or not events reported in association with the use of dihydroergotamine are causally related to it cannot be determined. There have been reports of pleural and retroperitoneal fibrosis in patients following prolonged daily use of injectable dihydroergotamine mesylate. Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate, USP) Nasal Spray is not recommended for prolonged daily use. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION)

Drug Abuse And Dependence

Currently available data have not demonstrated drug abuse or psychological dependence with dihydroergotamine. However, cases of drug abuse and psychological dependence in patients on other forms of ergot therapy have been reported. Thus, due to the chronicity of vascular headaches, it is imperative that patients be advised not to exceed recommended dosages.

Read the entire FDA prescribing information for Migranal (Dihydroergotamine Mesylate Spray)

Read More »
  • Prescription Migraine Medications
(web3)