Insulin Human

Name: Insulin Human

Insulin human Brand Names

Insulin human may be found in some form under the following brand names:

  • Afrezza

  • Humulin

  • Humulin 70/30

  • Humulin R

  • Humulin-N

  • Novolin

  • NovoLIN R

  • Velosulin BR

Insulin human Interactions

Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Many medicines alter glucose metabolism and may require insulin dose adjustment or close monitoring. Especially tell your doctor if you take:

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors such as benazepril (Lotensin), captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), fosinopril (Monopril), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), moexipril (Univasc), perindopril (Aceon), quinapril (Accupril), ramipril (Altace), and trandolapril (Mavik)
  • Beta blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin), labetalol (Normodyne), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL), nadolol (Corgard), and propranolol (Inderal)
  • Certain cholesterol-lowering medications such as fenofibrate (Antara, Lofibra, TriCor, Triglide), gemfibrozil (Lopid), and niacin (Niacor, Niaspan, in Advicor)
  • Clonidine (Catapres, Catapres-TTS, in Clorpres)
  • Danazol
  • Digoxin (Digitek, Lanoxin)
  • Disopyramide (Norpace, Norpace CR)
  • Diuretics
  • Fuoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, in Symbyax)
  • Hormone replacement therapy
  • Isoniazid (INH, Nydrazid)
  • Lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid)
  • Medications for asthma and colds
  • Medications for mental illness
  • Medications for nausea
  • Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, including isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), selegiline (Eldepryl) and Tranylcypromine (Parnate)
  • Octreotide (Sandostatin)
  • Oral contraceptives (birth control pills)
  • Oral medications for diabetes such as pioglitazone (Actos, in Actoplus Met and others) and rosiglitazone (Avandia, in Avandamet and others)
  • Oral steroids such as dexamethasone (Decadron, Dexone), methylprednisolone (Medrol), and prednisone (Deltasone); Pentamidine (NebuPent, Pentam)
  • Reserpine
  • Salicylate pain relievers such as aspirin, choline magnesium trisalicylate (Tricosal, Trilisate), choline salicylate (Arthropan), diflunisal (Dolobid), magnesium salicylate (Doan's, others), and salsalate (Argesic, Disalcid, Salgesic)
  • Somatropin (Nutropin, Serostim, others)
  • Sulfa antibiotics
  • Thyroid medications

This is not a complete list of insulin (human) drug interactions. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

Insulin human Usage

Use insulin (human) exactly as prescribed.

This medication comes in solution and suspension for injection and inhalational forms. The dose and frequency of administration will depend on many factors, including diet, lifestyle, and other conditions you have.

Uses for Insulin Human

Diabetes Mellitus

Replacement therapy for the management of diabetes mellitus.5 6 7 8 12 113 Human insulin manufactured using recombinant DNA technology is replacing pork insulin; future availability of animal insulins is uncertain.103

Insulin is required in all patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and mandatory in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states.

Also used in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus when weight reduction, proper dietary regulation, and/or oral antidiabetic agents have failed to maintain satisfactory glycemic control in both the fasting and postprandial state.

Diet should be emphasized as the primary form of treatment when initiating therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who do not have severe symptoms; caloric restriction and weight reduction are essential in obese patients.

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and many clinicians recommend the use of physiologically based, intensive insulin regimens (i.e., 3 or more insulin injections daily with dosage adjusted according to the results of multiple daily blood glucose determinations [e.g., at least 4 times daily], dietary intake, and anticipated exercise) in most type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients who are able to understand and carry out the treatment regimen, are not at increased risk for hypoglycemic episodes, and do not have other characteristics that increase risk or decrease benefit (e.g., advanced age, end-stage renal failure, advanced cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, other coexisting diseases that shorten life expectancy).

Goals of insulin therapy in all patients generally should include maintenance of blood glucose as close as possible to euglycemia without undue risk of hypoglycemia; avoidance of symptoms attributable to hyperglycemia, glycosuria, or ketonuria; and maintenance of ideal body weight and of normal growth and development in children.

The ADA states that human insulin is preferred for intermittent use and those initiating insulin therapy.103

Diabetic Ketoacidosis or Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic States

Used in the emergency treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states when rapid control of hyperglycemia is required.5 6 7 8 12 113 Regular insulin (e.g., insulin human [regular], insulin [regular]) is the insulin of choice in the treatment of such emergency conditions because of its rapid onset of action and because it can be administered IV.113

AMI

Has been used IV early in suspected AMI† in combination with IV potassium chloride and dextrose (d-glucose) (referred to as glucose-insulin-potassium or GIK therapy).95 96 97 98 99

Acute Stroke

Insulin injection (e.g., insulin human) also has been used IV in combination with IV potassium chloride and dextrose (i.e., GIK therapy) in a limited number of patients with acute stroke† and mild to moderate hyperglycemia.

Critical Illness

Has been used to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with critical illness† requiring intensive care.

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

The ADA states that human insulin is preferred for use in pregnant women or women considering pregnancy.103 The ADA recommends that insulin therapy (using insulin human) be considered in patients with gestational diabetes who, despite dietary management, have fasting plasma glucose concentrations exceeding 105 mg/dL or 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose concentrations exceeding 130 mg/dL.

Actions

  • Supplements deficient levels of endogenous insulin and temporarily restores the ability of the body to properly utilize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.e Facilitates cellular uptake of glucose in muscle and fat cells.d e

  • Inhibits output of glucose from the liver.d e In the liver, insulin facilitates phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate which is converted to glycogen or further metabolized.e

  • Stimulates lipogenesis and inhibits lipolysis and release of free fatty acids from adipose cells.e Insulin also stimulates protein synthesis.e

  • Promotes an intracellular shift of potassium and magnesium and thereby appears to temporarily decrease elevated blood concentrations of these ions.e

  • When used in patients following an AMI, insulin in combination with dextrose (d-glucose) and potassium (referred to as glucose-insulin-potassium [GIK] therapy) decreases both circulating concentrations of free fatty acids (FFAs) and myocardial uptake of FFAs. Rationale for G1K therapy: Stimulation of myocardial potassium uptake by insulin via Na+-K+-ATPase and provision of glucose (substrate) for glycolic ATP production. Aids in critical membrane functions such as calcium and sodium homeostasis.

  • Insulin human has essentially identical pharmacologic effects compared with purified pork insulin.12 13 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 38 39 40

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