Moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide
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Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide Overdose
If you take too much moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide, call your healthcare provider or local Poison Control Center, or seek emergency medical attention right away.
- Store, tightly closed, at room temperature, 68° to 77°F (20° to 25°C).
- Protect from excessive moisture.
- Keep this and all medications out of the reach of children.
Before Using moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide, the following should be considered:
Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.
Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide combination in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not been established.
Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide combination in the elderly. However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related kidney problems, which may require caution and a dose adjustment for patients receiving moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide combination.
|All Trimesters||D||Studies in pregnant women have demonstrated a risk to the fetus. However, the benefits of therapy in a life threatening situation or a serious disease, may outweigh the potential risk.|
There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.
Interactions with Medicines
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.
Using moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.
Using moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
- Alteplase, Recombinant
- Amtolmetin Guacil
- Arsenic Trioxide
- Azilsartan Medoxomil
- Candesartan Cilexetil
- Choline Salicylate
- Flufenamic Acid
- Mefenamic Acid
- Niflumic Acid
- Nimesulide Beta Cyclodextrin
- Olmesartan Medoxomil
- Salicylic Acid
- Sodium Salicylate
- Tiaprofenic Acid
- Tolfenamic Acid
Using moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
- Aminolevulinic Acid
- Amtolmetin Guacil
- Bupivacaine Liposome
- Choline Salicylate
- Ethacrynic Acid
- Flufenamic Acid
- Gold Sodium Thiomalate
- Mefenamic Acid
- Niflumic Acid
- Nimesulide Beta Cyclodextrin
- Propionic Acid
- Salicylic Acid
- Sodium Salicylate
- Tiaprofenic Acid
- Tolfenamic Acid
Interactions with Food/Tobacco/Alcohol
Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.
Other Medical Problems
The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:
- Angioedema (swelling of the face, lips, tongue, throat, arms, or legs), history of—May increase the risk of this condition occurring again.
- Anuria (not able to pass urine) or
- Diabetic patients who are also taking aliskiren (Tekturna®) or
- Sulfa drug allergy (e.g., sulfamethoxazole, Bactrim®, Septra®)—Should not be used in patients with these conditions.
- Asthma, history of—May increase likelihood of having an allergic reaction.
- Collagen vascular disease (an autoimmune disease) together with kidney disease—Increased risk of blood problems.
- Congestive heart failure or
- Dehydration or
- Diarrhea or
- Heart or blood vessel disease or
- Hyponatremia (low sodium in the blood) or
- Kidney disease—These conditions may cause the blood pressure to fall too low with moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide.
- Diabetes or
- Kidney problems—Increased risk of potassium levels in the body becoming too high.
- Edema (swelling or fluid in the body) or
- Electrolyte imbalance (e.g., low levels of magnesium, potassium, salt or sodium in the body) or
- Fluid imbalance (due to excessive perspiration, vomiting, diarrhea) or
- Glaucoma, secondary angle closure or
- Gout or
- Heart disease (e.g., ischemic heart disease, aortic stenosis, cerebrovascular disease) or
- Hypercalcemia (high calcium in the blood) or
- Hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol in the blood) or
- Liver disease or
- Myopia, acute (changes in the eyeball causing vision problems) or
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)—Use with caution. May make these conditions worse.
moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide Side Effects
Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:Less common
- Blurred vision
- decreased urination
- dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up suddenly from a lying or sitting position
- dry mouth
- fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat
- muscle cramps or pain
- numbness, tingling, pain, or weakness in the hands or feet
- rapid breathing
- sunken eyes
- unusual tiredness or weakness
- weakness and heaviness of the legs
- wrinkled skin
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:Less common
- Dry cough
Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide?
- If you have an allergy to moexipril, hydrochlorothiazide, or any other part of this medicine.
- If you are allergic to any drugs like this one, any other drugs, foods, or other substances. Tell your doctor about the allergy and what signs you had, like rash; hives; itching; shortness of breath; wheezing; cough; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat; or any other signs.
- If you have ever had a very bad or life-threatening reaction called angioedema. Signs may be swelling of the hands, face, lips, eyes, tongue, or throat; trouble breathing; trouble swallowing; unusual hoarseness.
- If you are taking dofetilide.
- If you have kidney disease.
- If you are not able to pass urine.
- If you are taking a drug that has aliskiren in it and you also have high blood sugar (diabetes) or kidney problems. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure if a drug you take has aliskiren in it.
- If you have taken a drug that has sacubitril in it in the last 36 hours.
- If you are breast-feeding or plan to breast-feed.
This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide.
Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all of your drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins) and health problems. You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take this medicine with all of your drugs and health problems. Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug without checking with your doctor.
How is this medicine (Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide) best taken?
Use this medicine as ordered by your doctor. Read all information given to you. Follow all instructions closely.
- Take 1 hour before a meal.
- Keep taking moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide as you have been told by your doctor or other health care provider, even if you feel well.
- Take this medicine at the same time of day.
- To gain the most benefit, do not miss doses.
- This medicine may cause you to pass urine more often. To keep from having sleep problems, try to take before 6 pm.
- Drink lots of noncaffeine liquids unless told to drink less liquid by your doctor.
What do I do if I miss a dose?
- Take a missed dose as soon as you think about it.
- If it is close to the time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your normal time.
- Do not take 2 doses at the same time or extra doses.
How do I store and/or throw out Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide?
- Store at room temperature.
- Store in a dry place. Do not store in a bathroom.
- Keep all drugs in a safe place. Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.
- Check with your pharmacist about how to throw out unused drugs.
Brand Names U.S.
- Uniretic [DSC]
Use Labeled Indications
Hypertension: Management of hypertension
Oral: Administer on an empty stomach 1 hour prior to a meal.
Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). Protect from excessive moisture.
Concerns related to adverse effects:
• Angioedema: At any time during treatment (especially following first dose), angioedema may occur rarely with ACE inhibitors; it may involve the head and neck (potentially compromising airway) or the intestine (presenting with abdominal pain). African-Americans and patients with idiopathic or hereditary angioedema may be at an increased risk. Risk may also be increased with concomitant use of mTOR inhibitor (eg, everolimus) therapy. Prolonged frequent monitoring may be required especially if tongue, glottis, or larynx are involved as they are associated with airway obstruction. Patients with a history of airway surgery may have a higher risk of airway obstruction. Aggressive early and appropriate management is critical. Use in patients with previous angioedema associated with ACE inhibitor therapy is contraindicated.
• Cholestatic jaundice: A rare toxicity associated with ACE inhibitors includes cholestatic jaundice, which may progress to fulminant hepatic necrosis (some fatal); discontinue if marked elevation of hepatic transaminases or jaundice occurs.
• Cough: An ACE inhibitor cough is a dry, hacking, nonproductive one that usually occurs within the first few months of treatment and should generally resolve within 1-4 weeks after discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor. Other causes of cough should be considered (eg, pulmonary congestion in patients with heart failure) and excluded prior to discontinuation.
• Electrolyte disturbances: Hyperkalemia may occur with ACE inhibitors; risk factors include renal dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, and concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and/or potassium-containing salts. Use cautiously, if at all, with these agents and monitor potassium closely. Thiazide diuretics may cause hypokalemia, hypochloremic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, and hyponatremia.
• Gout: In certain patients with a history of gout, a familial predisposition to gout, or chronic renal failure, gout can be precipitated by hydrochlorothiazide. This risk may be increased with doses ≥25 mg (Gurwitz 1997).
• Hypersensitivity reactions: Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions can occur with ACE inhibitors. Severe anaphylactoid reactions may be seen during hemodialysis (eg, CVVHD) with high-flux dialysis membranes (eg, AN69), and rarely, during low density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate cellulose. Rare cases of anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients undergoing sensitization treatment with hymenoptera (bee, wasp) venom while receiving ACE inhibitors. Hypersensitivity reactions may also occur with hydrochlorothiazide; risk is increased in patients with a history of allergy or bronchial asthma.
• Hypotension/syncope: Symptomatic hypotension with or without syncope can occur with ACE inhibitors (usually with the first several doses); effects are most often observed in volume-depleted patients; correct volume depletion prior to initiation; close monitoring of patient is required especially with initial dosing and dosing increases; blood pressure must be lowered at a rate appropriate for the patient's clinical condition. Although dose reduction may be necessary, hypotension is not a reason for discontinuation of future ACE inhibitor use especially in patients with heart failure where a reduction in systolic blood pressure is a desirable observation.
• Neutropenia/agranulocytosis: Another ACE inhibitor, captopril, has been associated with rare cases of agranulocytosis, neutropenia or leukopenia with myeloid hypoplasia. Patients with renal impairment are at high risk of developing neutropenia. Patients with both renal impairment and collagen vascular disease (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus) are at an even higher risk of developing neutropenia. Periodically monitor CBC with differential in these patients.
• Ocular effects: Hydrochlorothiazide may cause acute transient myopia and acute angle-closure glaucoma, typically occurring within hours to weeks following initiation; discontinue therapy immediately in patients with acute decreases in visual acuity or ocular pain. Additional treatments may be needed if uncontrolled intraocular pressure persists. Risk factors may include a history of sulfonamide or penicillin allergy.
• Photosensitivity: Photosensitization may occur.
• Renal function deterioration: Moexipril may be associated with deterioration of renal function and/or increases in BUN and serum creatinine, particularly in patients with low renal blood flow (eg, renal artery stenosis, heart failure) whose glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is dependent on efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction by angiotensin II; deterioration may result in oliguria, acute renal failure, and progressive azotemia. Small increases in serum creatinine may occur following initiation; consider discontinuation only in patients with progressive and/or significant deterioration in renal function (Bakris 2000).
• Sulfonamide (“sulfa”) allergy: The FDA-approved product labeling for many medications containing a sulfonamide chemical group includes a broad contraindication in patients with a prior allergic reaction to sulfonamides. There is a potential for cross-reactivity between members of a specific class (eg, two antibiotic sulfonamides). However, concerns for cross-reactivity have previously extended to all compounds containing the sulfonamide structure (SO2NH2). An expanded understanding of allergic mechanisms indicates cross-reactivity between antibiotic sulfonamides and nonantibiotic sulfonamides may not occur or at the very least this potential is extremely low (Brackett 2004; Johnson 2005; Slatore 2004; Tornero 2004). In particular, mechanisms of cross-reaction due to antibody production (anaphylaxis) are unlikely to occur with nonantibiotic sulfonamides. T-cell-mediated (type IV) reactions (eg, maculopapular rash) are less well understood and it is not possible to completely exclude this potential based on current insights. In cases where prior reactions were severe (Stevens-Johnson syndrome/TEN), some clinicians choose to avoid exposure to these classes.
• Aortic stenosis: Use moexipril with caution in patients with aortic stenosis; may reduce coronary perfusion resulting in ischemia.
• Cardiovascular disease: Initiation of therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease or cerebrovascular disease warrants close observation due to the potential consequences posed by falling blood pressure (eg, MI, stroke). Fluid replacement, if needed, may restore blood pressure; therapy may then be resumed. Discontinue therapy in patients whose hypotension recurs.
• Collagen vascular disease: Use ACE inhibitors with caution in patients with collagen vascular disease especially with concomitant renal impairment; may be at increased risk for hematologic toxicity. Hydrochlorothiazide can cause systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) exacerbation or activation.
• Diabetes: Use hydrochlorothiazide with caution in patients with prediabetes or diabetes mellitus; may see a change in glucose control.
• Hepatic impairment: Use caution in patients with hepatic impairment. In progressive or severe liver disease, avoid electrolyte and acid/base imbalances that might lead to hepatic encephalopathy/coma.
• Hypercalcemia: Thiazide diuretics may decrease renal calcium excretion; consider avoiding use in patients with hypercalcemia.
• Hypercholesterolemia: Use with caution in patients with moderate or high cholesterol concentrations; increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels have been reported with thiazides.
• Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with outflow tract obstruction: Use moexipril with caution in patients with HCM and outflow tract obstruction since reduction in afterload may worsen symptoms associated with this condition (ACCF/AHA [Gersh 2011]).
• Parathyroid disease: Thiazide diuretics reduce calcium excretion; pathologic changes in the parathyroid glands with hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia have been observed with prolonged use; should be discontinued prior to testing for parathyroid function.
• Renal artery stenosis: Use moexipril with caution in patients with unstented unilateral/bilateral renal artery stenosis. When unstented bilateral renal artery stenosis is present, use is generally avoided due to the elevated risk of deterioration in renal function unless possible benefits outweigh risks.
• Renal impairment: Use ACE inhibitors with caution in preexisting renal insufficiency; dosage adjustment may be needed. Avoid rapid dosage escalation which may lead to further renal impairment. Cumulative effects of hydrochlorothiazide may develop, including azotemia, in patients with impaired renal function. Avoid hydrochlorothiazide in severe renal disease (ineffective). Contraindicated in anuric patients.
Concurrent drug therapy issues:
• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information
• Black patients: ACE inhibitors effectiveness is less in black patients than in non-blacks. In addition, ACE inhibitors cause a higher rate of angioedema in black than in non-black patients.
• Pregnancy: [US Boxed Warning]: Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. Discontinue as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected.
• Surgery: In patients on chronic ACE inhibitor therapy, intraoperative hypotension may occur with induction and maintenance of general anesthesia; use with caution before, during, or immediately after major surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass, intraoperative blood loss, or vasodilating anesthesia increases endogenous renin release. Use of ACE inhibitors perioperatively will blunt angiotensin II formation and may result in hypotension. However, discontinuation of therapy prior to surgery is controversial. If continued preoperatively, avoidance of hypotensive agents during surgery is prudent (Hillis 2011).